How does a Light Emitting Diode (LED) Work?

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The most important component is the LED chip itself, also known as the die.They are made of a semiconductor material with a negative and positive terminal and are thin and rectangular in shape. Most chips used in LED manufacturing are InGaN chips (Indium Gallium Nitride) that emit a blue coloured light with a wavelength of 450-460 nanometers, using about 3 volts. LED chips are the dominant factor in determining light quality. The chips have various ratings for brightness, emitting wavelength, and voltage. When an LED chip is connected to an electrical source and a current passes through the chip, light of a certain colour is emitted.There are no commercially viable ways for an LED chip to produce white light. Therefore, the most cost effective way to create white light is to use LED phosphors, chemical powders which convert blue light into other wavelengths, turning the blue light into what we perceive as white light through what is called phosphor conversion (PC). Other phosphors can also be mixed in order to create various lighting distributions.

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